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PREM Project Report - Greening the Charcoal Chain. Substituting for Charcoal as a Household Cooking Fuel in Dar es Salaam

Author(s) Michelle Beaudin, Sari Palmula
Date 2007-10-01
Theme(s) Urban, Policy and Trade, Forest, Agriculture
Method(s) Social Analysis, Policy Instruments, Multi Criteria Analysis
Serie(s) Project Reports


One of the United Republic of Tanzania’s most prized resources, forest land, is being threatened by the industry of charcoal.  Deforestation caused by the charcoal industry is a problem that developing countries around the world and particularly in Africa are facing.  This study will focus on this problem as it affects the city of Dar es Salaam, the countries largest consumer of charcoal.  A large number of citizens, 69% (Malimbwi 2001), use charcoal to cook with, increasing deforestation, adding to their health problems and emitting detrimental greenhouse gases.
The process of producing and using charcoal is not sustainable and many organizations are looking into ways of making the charcoal chain more sustainable.  Many options exist; however, this study will focus on decreasing charcoal consumption in the city of Dar es Salaam.  Using the results of a survey of 235 targeted households in the city, this report seeks to explain what kinds of people use certain fuels, why they use those fuels, their way of cooking with the fuel, and their willingness to switch to other fuels.

The results of the survey are used in two cost-benefit analyses (CBAs).  A household CBA will determine which fuel is the most cost effective, taking daily cost, initial investment cost, health risk avoided and time savings into account.  The results of the household CBA will be used in a social planner CBA to determine if investing in a fuel substitution campaign will benefit the society as a whole.  The social planner CBA will consider environmental benefits as well as the costs and benefits used in the household CBA.

Finally, we conclude that investing in an extensive LPG marketing campaign to target 30% of charcoal users is not only feasible but beneficial to society.  This measure will decrease consumption of charcoal and make the industry more sustainable.  Forestland, a precious resource, will have a better chance of surviving and being of continued use to the citizens of Tanzania.


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Full Document PREM report 07-03 Tanzania.pdf PDF Document Download

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