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MPA report: Nature's Investment Bank. How marine protected areas contribute to poverty reduction.
|Author(s)||Craig Leisher, Pieter van Beukering, Lea M. Scherl|
|Theme(s)||Water, Fisheries, Biodiversity|
|Method(s)||Valuation and CBA, Regression Analysis, Multi Criteria Analysis|
This study is one of the first to empirically analyze the link between biodiversity conservation initiatives and poverty reduction. From November 2006 toMay 2007, 68 people in four countries helped conduct more than 950 household interviews and more than 50 focus group discussions and key informant interviews. In total, approximately 1,100 local people were consulted to determine whether four particular marine protected areas have contributed to poverty reduction, and if so, why. The four study sites do not represent a random sample but were deliberately chosen because local experts believe they have contributed to poverty reduction.
The four marine protected areas are in Fiji (Navakavu), the Solomon Islands (Arnavon Islands), Indonesia (Bunaken) and the Philippines (Apo Island). This portfolio of sites is roughly representative of small, one-community local marine protected areas (Fiji), medium-sized, multi-community local marine protected areas (Solomons), big collaboratively managed national marine protected areas with lots of people (Indonesia), and small, co-managed national marine protected areas with few people (Philippines). In terms of area, 95% of marine protected areas globally fall between the largest marine protected area in the study (Bunaken) and the smallest (Apo Island).
The four sites also have a good mix of population size and age of the marine protected area. The findings show that marine protected areas can effectively contribute to poverty reduction. “People in the community are now better off and this is because of the marine protected area,” as one local person explained. For the residents of Navakavu and Apo Island, their marine protected area contributed to poverty reduction in very substantial ways (though both sites have fewer than 700 people). In the Arnavons and Bunaken, with populations of 2,200 and 30,000 respectively, the marine protected area has also clearly contributed to poverty reduction, though by no means eliminated it. Across all the study sites, over 95% of local people support the continuation of their marine protected area.
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